Learning to train your own horse is the most fun you'll have on horseback.
Turn on the Forehand
The horse is moving the haunches to the left, while its right front leg stays stationary, balancing the weight of the horse and rider's body. The horse is bearing the weight of the horse and rider on it's right front leg, the axis of the turn. Turn on the Forehand is necessary to accomplish leg yielding and later, flying lead changes.
Turn on the Haunches
Nacona Smith is turning to the right on the haunches by moving the shoulders (reins) right, while the haunches stay stationary, bearing the weight of both the horse and rider. The weight of the turn is on the horse's right hind leg, while the left hind leg "pedals" the turn. This is the first step towards developing spins. Notice the circle in the dirt made by the horse's front feet with the haunches as the center/axis of the turn.
Backing is forward motion put into reverse.
There's seldom a day when I'm not I'm asked, "What bit should I use?"
There is no great answer to the question because it depends on the horse, the rider and what the two plan to do together. The key to a bit's effectiveness or harshness lies in the rider's hands.
Very simply, there are only two kinds of bits:
Snaffle bit, uses no leverage, applies pressure only on the bars of the mouth. Snaffle is used for green horses.
Curb bit uses leverage (needs a chin strap to function), applies pressure to bars of the mouth, chin and over the top of the poll.
However, there are a million mouthpieces for each one including, solid, broken, linked and twisted, round, oval, triangular, impregnated, etc.